The Berlin Wall was erected by the German Democratic Republic(GDR), and encircled the city of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany. The Inner German Border demarcated the border between East and West Germany. This Wall came to symbolize the Iron Curtain which symbolized both the ideological and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of WWII to the end of the Cold War, in 1991. From 1961 and 1989, the Wall stopped emigration into West Germany. On November 9, 1989 the East German government announced that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany.